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2. Điều kiện hình thành sét

Lightning becomes likely to occur when powerful updrafts carry moisture up into the air, and when the upper air temperature has fallen to below minus 10ºC.

One of the most common features of clouds that produce lightning is the presence of power updrafts extending to an altitude of several kilometers. The upper ranges of these updrafts reach altitudes where the temperature has fallen to below minus 20ºC. Temperatures of minus 20ºC occur in the Japanese summer at between 7 and 8 kilometers above the ground. In the northern part of Japan, in winter, these temperatures occur at between 3 and 5 kilometers above the ground.

In the Japanese summer, heat lightning occurs in clouds whose tops are at between 8 and 16km high, and in winter in the north in clouds whose tops are between 4 and 6km high. In summer, in order for updrafts to occur, there needs to be hot and humid air near the ground, with a comparatively cold air mass above it. Summer days with strong sunshine are likely to cause heat lightning, and particularly when a cold front moves across the Japanese archipelago, heavy thunderstorms can occur. In winter along the Japan Sea coast, a great temperature difference is generated between the cold air mass coming from Siberia and the air temperature close to the surface of the sea, causing frequent lightning in the snow clouds during November and December.

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